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Hemolytic anemia occurs when the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells (RBCs). This is because the cells are destroyed too early. The body also does not make new RBCs fast enough to replace the ones that are destroyed. There are many types of hemolytic anemia. Your child’s healthcare provider will tell you more about the type your child has and discuss treatment options with you.
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy part inside bones. There are three types of blood cells. The RBCs are one type. RBCs are important because they contain hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that allows RBCs to carry oxygen throughout the body. Normally, each RBC lives in the body for about 4 months. New RBCs are made daily to replace the ones that die naturally or that are lost through injury or illness.
The causes of hemolytic anemia vary depending on the type your child has. Possible causes include certain infections and medications. Hemolytic anemia can also occur due to certain inherited conditions or autoimmune disorders.
Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Some children have no symptoms at all. If symptoms are present, they can include:
Shortness of breath
Trouble doing normal amounts of physical activity (exercise intolerance)
Dizziness or fainting
Jaundice (yellowing of the eyes, skin, or mouth; dark, tea-colored urine)
Pain in the upper abdomen due to a problem with the gallbladder, liver, or spleen
Your child will likely see a pediatric hematologist for diagnosis and treatment. This is a doctor who specializes in blood disorders (hematology). The doctor will examine your child and ask about your child’s symptoms, medications, diet, and family and health history. Tests are also done. Most of the tests are performed by taking a blood sample from a vein in the arm or from a finger or heel. Tests may include:
A complete blood cell count (CBC) to measure the amounts of types of cells in the blood.
A blood smear to check the sizes and shapes of the blood cells. A drop of blood is examined under a microscope. A stain is used to make the blood cells easier to see.
A Coombs test to check for certain antibodies (proteins). These may be causing the body to have an abnormal reaction to the blood cells.
A reticulocyte count to measure the amount of new RBCs being made by the bone marrow.
An ultrasound to take a picture of the gallbladder, liver, and spleen. Gallstones or an enlarged liver or spleen can be signs of a blood disorder.
Treatment for hemolytic anemia varies depending on the cause and severity of symptoms. The goal is to decrease or stop the RBCs from being destroyed and to restore the amount of RBCs to normal. Possible treatments include:
Diet and medication changes. Certain foods and medications may need to be limited or avoided. If this is needed, you will be given instructions.
Blood transfusions. These are done to give your child more blood. They are needed if the blood cell count falls too low.
Medications. If the body’s immune system is causing problems with the production of the RBCs, medications may be given to suppress the immune system.
Plasmapheresis. This procedure removes the plasma from the blood and replaces it with plasma from a healthy donor. It may be needed if antibodies in the plasma are affecting the RBCs.
Surgery to remove the spleen (splenectomy). The spleen stores blood and helps remove old RBCs from the body. Though done less often, removing the spleen may help treat certain types of hemolytic anemia.
Bone marrow transplant. In rare cases, this treatment is done if the body can’t make enough healthy blood cells. It replaces diseased bone marrow cells with healthy cells from a matched donor.
Depending on the type and cause of hemolytic anemia, some children recover completely after treatment.
For other children, hemolytic anemia may be a lifelong condition. Regular visits with the doctor may be needed for routine tests and help in managing symptoms. Work closely with your child’s doctor to learn how to help your child. Be sure to discuss how to help your child prevent possible complications. This includes topics such as physical activity, diet, and ways to reduce the risk of bleeding or infections.