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Lymphedema is a problem that may occur after cancer surgery when lymph nodes are removed. You may also hear it called “LE.” Lymphedema can occur months or years after the surgery. It is a chronic (ongoing) condition that has no cure. But steps can be taken to reduce or relieve symptoms. If left untreated, lymphedema can get worse. Treatment can lower your risk of infections and complications.
The lymphatic system helps the body fight infection. It is made up of a system of small vessels throughout the body. Lymph fluid travels through these vessels. Many tiny organs called lymph nodes are scattered through the system. These nodes filter lymph fluid. During surgery for cancer, nearby lymph nodes are often removed. This disrupts the flow of lymph fluid, which can lead to swelling. This is lymphedema. Lymphedema can affect one or both arms or legs or the belly. Swelling can worsen and become severe. Skin sores or other problems can develop. Affected areas are also more likely to become infected.
There are no medications currently used to treat lymphedema. Instead, the most common treatment for lymphedema is complete decongestive therapy (CDT). This is a set of techniques used together to reduce your symptoms. CDT is done by trained therapists. To help show how well the treatment is working, your arms or legs may be measured before and after CDT. The treatment involves one or more of the following:
Manual lymphatic drainage. This is a kind of massage that uses gentle pressure to help move lymph out of areas where it is collecting. It is done by a therapist or nurse with special training. It can also be learned and done at home.
Intermittent pneumatic compression. This uses a device to apply and relieve pressure to the arms or legs. Sleeves are put over the arms or legs. A pump fills the sleeves with air. Then the air is let out. This happens many times in a row.
Compression bandages. This means wearing stretchy or padded fabric on the parts of the body with lymphedema. This may include bandages, tape, or other types of compression wraps. They help support your tissues so lymph can flow more freely. And they help prevent lymph from building up.
Therapeutic exercises. Some kinds of exercise may help your symptoms. These may include aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking. And they may include gradual weight-lifting exercises that build muscle.
Skin and nail care. Proper care of your skin and nails will help prevent infection. See the “Preventing Infection for Life” box for more information.
Compression garments. These are worn as often as needed, for life. These include sleeves, gloves, stockings, undershirt, or other types of special clothes. They compress parts of the body to help prevent lymph buildup. You wear these during daily life, or at night when you’re asleep.
Avoid becoming too cold or too hot. This can cause the skin to swell and dry out. It can also cause more fluid to build up. Be careful around hot objects to avoid burns. Don’t use hot tubs, saunas, or a heating pad.
Avoid anything that squeezes the affected area. This may cause more swelling. Wear loose clothing and jewelry. If your legs are affected, don’t cross your legs when you sit. This can block lymph drainage.
Avoid weight gain. This can make your symptoms worse.
Inform health care providers. If your arms are affected, tell your health care providers about your lymphedema before getting shots, an IV, or having your blood pressure taken.
Call the doctor if you have
Fever of 100.4ºF (38ºC) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider
Signs of infection such as red blotches, warmth, or pain
Sudden increase in swelling
An important part of staying healthy with lymphedema is preventing infections in the areas that are swollen. Lymphedema makes it easier for bacteria to grow in those areas. To help prevent infection:
Keep your skin clean, and moisturize it with lotion
Check your skin regularly for cuts, sores, bug bites, or other problems
Use an antibacterial ointment if you have a cut or sore
Trim your fingernails and toenails straight across to prevent ingrown nails
Do not allow blood to be taken or shots given in any affected limb
Prevent skin burns by wearing sunscreen and using gloves when cooking or doing household work
Wear shoes that fit well and do not cause blisters
For more information about lymphedema and its treatment, visit the websites below:
National Lymphedema Network, www.lymphnet.org
American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org
National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov