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Your eardrum is a thin membrane between your outer and middle ear. Sound waves entering your ear cause the membrane to vibrate, which helps you hear. An injury or infection can cause your eardrum to tear (rupture). This creates a hole (perforation) that may affect your hearing.
Causes of a ruptured eardrum include:
Pressure from an ear infection
Putting an object, such as a cotton swab or pencil, into the ear
A very loud noise (such as a gunshot) close to the ear
Rapid changes in air pressure, which can occur during scuba diving or traveling at high altitudes
A slap or blow to the ear
Seek medical care right away if you:
Have severe pain, bleeding, or ringing in your ear.
Lose your hearing suddenly.
Become very dizzy for no reason.
Have an object lodged in your ear.
A ruptured eardrum from an ear infection usually isn't an emergency. In fact, the rupture often relieves pressure and pain. Still, the ear should be examined by a doctor or pediatrician within 24 hours.
Your ear will be examined. Treatment will depend on how severe the damage is. Small holes often heal on their own. A small patch may be placed over a minor eardrum tear. Large tears may need to be repaired during an operation. If you are very dizzy or have severe hearing loss, you are likely to stay in the hospital for treatment for one or more days.