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You have just learned that your child has a food allergy. This means your child’s body has an allergic reaction to a food that most people can eat without problems. Food allergies can be life-threatening. In children with food allergies, the immune system mistakes the food as harmful and releases powerful chemicals into the bloodstream. These chemicals cause symptoms that may be mild, such as itching. But more severe symptoms, known as anaphylaxis, can be fatal if not treated right away. Read below to learn more about food allergies and anaphylaxis.
Many foods can cause an allergic reaction, but children are most often allergic to:
Shellfish (such as shrimp, lobster, and crab)
Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, and walnuts)
Fish (such as tuna and salmon)
Symptoms of a food allergy usually appear a few minutes to 1–2 hours after eating a problem food. They may include:
Fainting or feeling dizzy
Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
Hives and itching
Eczema (dry, itchy skin) that becomes worse
Wheezing and trouble breathing and swallowing
Stomach pain or cramping
Nausea or vomiting
Anaphylaxis is the most severe type of allergic reaction. It can be fatal if not treated quickly. The reaction can occur within minutes to a few hours after exposure to an allergen. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
Dizziness or fainting
Pounding heart (palpitations)
Nausea, vomiting, or severe diarrhea
If your doctor has prescribed injectable epinephrine (such as EpiPen, Adrenaclick, Twinject), use it right away. Then call 911 or emergency services.
These factors make food allergies more likely:
Family history: Many children with food allergies come from families with a history of food allergies, hay fever, or asthma.
Eczema: Many children who have food allergies also have eczema.
Young age: Food allergies occur most often in infants and toddlers.
In addition to taking a complete food history, your child’s doctor may ask you to keep a food diary for your child. This can help identify problem foods. Certain tests also can help detect foods to which your child may be allergic. These include:
Skin prick test: Your doctor places a small drop of a suspected allergen (allergic substance) on your child’s skin and makes a small prick. It takes up to 15 minutes for the skin to react. By looking at the reaction, the doctor may learn whether your child is allergic to a certain food.
Blood test (RAST): This test measures your child’s immune system response to certain foods. Blood is drawn in the doctor’s office and sent to a laboratory for testing. Blood testing may be done instead of skin testing for some children.
Elimination diet: This involves removing certain foods from your child’s diet and then slowly adding them back in. Your child’s doctor can tell you more about this method of checking for food allergies.
There is no cure for food allergies, though many children do outgrow them. Treatment usually means avoiding the problem food(s) completely. Some children must also avoid foods similar to the allergen. For instance, if your child is allergic to peanuts, your child’s doctor may recommend avoiding all nuts. You also must be cautious about cross contact (when a food your child can safely eat comes in contact with a food to which your child is allergic). Cross contact can occur at home, in a restaurant, or when food is processed or stored. Your child’s doctor or a dietitian can help you learn what foods to avoid and how to plan balanced, good-tasting meals that are free of allergens. Children who don’t outgrow their allergies should learn to read food labels and to ask how food is prepared when they eat away from home. Food allergies may be managed effectively with consultation with appropriate medical expertise.
These measures can help ensure your child’s safety:
Read labels on all foods carefully. Be sure to look for hidden allergens.
Inform key people about your child’s food allergy. This includes adults who spend time with your child, such as childcare providers, teachers, relatives, and other parents. Let them know the warning signs of an allergic reaction and what to do if it occurs. Teach them how to use injectable epinephrine.
Prepare an action plan. Describe how to care for your child in case of an allergic reaction. Give a copy of the plan to the school nurse, food service workers, and people who care for your child.
Have your child wear a medical alert bracelet. This tells health care workers and others that your child has a food allergy. The bracelet can be purchased in most drugstores and on the Internet.
Carry a “chef card.” This personalized card explains your child’s allergy to restaurant workers. You can make your own card or print a copy from websites on the Internet.
A 2006 law requires labels on all packaged foods that must clearly state whether a product contains any of the eight major food allergens: eggs, milk, peanuts, soy, wheat, shellfish, tree nuts, and fish. Foods that aren’t packaged, such as fresh fruits and vegetables and meats, won’t be labeled.
Many children outgrow their allergies, but for others, allergies last throughout their lives. Children are less likely to outgrow allergies to peanuts, shellfish, and tree nuts. Follow-up visits with your child’s doctor or allergist can help you stay informed as your child gets older.
Not all unpleasant reactions to food are allergies. Sometimes your child may have a food intolerance. Here are some important differences between the two:
A food intolerance:
Usually causes digestive symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, and gas.
Doesn’t involve the immune system and often means your child can’t digest certain foods properly.
May not cause a reaction when the food is eaten in small amounts.
A food allergy:
May cause symptoms throughout the body.
Is an immune system response.
Occurs after the slightest exposure to a problem food.
Visit the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network website: www.foodallergy.org