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Having a health problem can make you more likely to fall. Taking certain kinds of medications may also increase your risk of falls. So, improving your health can help you avoid a fall. Work with your healthcare provider to manage health problems and to review your medications. If you have your health under control, your risk of falling is lessened.
Health problems like diabetes, high or low blood pressure, and arthritis are called chronic health conditions. They can be managed, but they don’t go away. Chronic health problems put you at greater risk of a fall. This is because they can affect many parts of your body. They may cause problems with movement, balance, or vision. And certain medications you take for them may have side effects, such as dizziness or drowsiness. These side effects also increase your risk.
Your healthcare provider can work with you to help prevent a fall. See your healthcare provider for a medical exam each year. Go more often if you have symptoms, such as leg numbness or dizziness, that could raise your risk of falling. Bring a list of your medications to review with your provider. Discuss your nutrition and exercise routine. And ask whether you need any tests to assess your risk of falling.
Medications (even ones you buy over the counter) can cause side effects that lead to a fall. Common medications that cause these kinds of side effects are blood pressure, heart, or pain medications, medications for sleep, and antidepressants. Also, the way your body reacts to medications can change as you age. So, certain medications that were fine in the past may cause side effects now. Your healthcare provider (such as your doctor or pharmacist) can help review your medications and make changes if needed.
Problems with vision or hearing can lead to falls.
Get your eyes checked at least once a year. Take time to adjust to new glasses.
Get your hearing checked at least every other year.
Have your doctor check your inner ear for problems that may affect your balance.
If you don’t get enough to eat or drink, you can become dizzy and fall.
Your sense of thirst decreases with age. Drink water throughout the day.
Eat breakfast. Plan regular meals.
Ask your healthcare provider whether you need supplements. These can help strengthen your bones and muscles to help prevent falls. They can also help prevent fractures if you do fall.
Staying active is one of the best things you can do to prevent falls. Keep in mind that doing too little can be as risky as doing too much. That’s because not being active can make you weaker and more likely to fall. Balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance all come from exercise. They all play a role in preventing falls. Ask your healthcare provider which types of activity are right for you.
Be sure to call your healthcare provider if you fall and are hurt. Also call if you have any of these signs or symptoms (someone else may need to point them out to you):
Feeling lightheaded or dizzy more than once a day
Losing your balance often or feeling unsteady on your feet
Feeling numbness in your legs or feet, or noticing a change in the way you walk
Having a steady decline in your memory or mental sharpness