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A mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a sudden jolt to your head that causes the way your brain works to change temporarily. It is also called a concussion. This could be caused by a blow to your head, a blast, or a sudden and severe movement of your head that bounces your brain inside your skull. Falls, fights, sports, and motor vehicle accidents are other common causes.
In addition to mild TBI, there are two other types: moderate TBI and severe TBI. Your health care team will decide if your TBI is mild, moderate, or severe at the time of the injury. Sometimes the symptoms of a mild TBI are much like those of a more severe TBI. Because every brain is different, it can be hard to predict exactly what your symptoms or your specific recovery will be like.
Most TBIs are mild. If you have a mild TBI, you might be knocked out for a short time or you might just feel stunned for a while. Your health care provider may evaluate you to see if you have had a mild TBI.
Signs of a mild TBI may not show up on brain scans or X-rays. Because of this, diagnosis of a mild TBI may be based on one or more of these findings:
Having mental changes for a time after a jolt to the head
Having memory problems for a time after a jolt to the head
Having a seizure after a jolt to the head
Having loss of consciousness (getting knocked out) for 30 minutes or less after a jolt to the head
Having a mild TBI can change your brain in many ways. A mild TBI can change the way you think, feel, or act. The kind of symptoms you have depends on the location and extent that your brain is affected. Common symptoms of mild TBI can occur right away or a while after the injury. Early symptoms may include:
Not being sure of where you are
Being sick to your stomach
Later symptoms of a mild TBI may include:
Having frequent headaches
Not being able to concentrate or pay attention
Feeling tired most of the time
Getting angry and irritated easily
Being bothered by bright light or loud noise
Having trouble focusing your eyes
Hearing ringing in your ears
Feeling anxious and depressed
Most people recover completely from mild TBI, but it may take days, weeks, or months. For some, symptoms may last even longer. Also, if you have had more than one TBI, your recovery may take longer. Every brain is different, so your recovery time will depend on how quickly your own brain is healing.
You can expect to have some good days and some bad days. It is important to give your brain time to recover and not push yourself too hard. Trying to “tough it out” can make your symptoms worse. The best way to recover is to discuss symptoms with your health care provider, as well as your family. Work closely with your health care provider and give your brain time to heal.