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Mastoidectomy can remove infected bone and growths from the middle ear. But it may not improve your hearing in the affected ear. During surgery, you will receive general anesthesia. Mastoidectomy may take 1–3 hours. It may be done along with a tympanoplasty or an ossicular chain reconstruction.
The mastoid bone contains cells that hold air (called air cells). Problems occur when an ear infection spreads to the air cells. Skin cells may also build up in an infected ear. These skin cells can form a growth (called a cholesteatoma). This growth can destroy nearby bone. If not treated, mastoid bone problems may cause deafness, facial nerve damage, dizziness, brain infection, or even death.
To reach the mastoid bone, your surgeon makes an incision behind the ear. Or he or she goes through the ear canal. Both approaches may be used. Infected bone and any growths are removed. Then the incision is closed with stitches. There are many types of mastoidectomy. Each type is based on the amount of infected bone. Depending on how much bone is removed, some hearing may be lost.