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During rectal surgery, the rectum is surgically removed. You will be given instructions on how to prepare for your surgery. Follow these instructions carefully. You will likely be admitted to the hospital on the day of your surgery. In certain cases, admission to the hospital the day before is needed. To help prepare your body, you will be instructed on what to do before surgery. Follow these instructions carefully. Ask questions if something is unclear.
Have a thorough physical exam as instructed by your doctor.
Ask about medications. Tell your surgeon about all medications you take, and ask whether you should stop taking them. This includes prescription medications, aspirin, and other over-the-counter drugs. Mention any herbs or supplements you take.
Quit smoking. Smoking increases surgery risks and slows healing.
Have only clear liquids. For 12–24 hours before your surgery, you will be told not to eat any solid foods and to drink only clear liquids. These liquids include broth, plain coffee, gelatin, and clear fruit juice.
Do your bowel prep. To be sure your colon and rectum are clear of stool, you’ll be asked to do a bowel prep for 12–24 hours before surgery. This involves drinking a liquid laxative, using enemas, or both.
Make sure your stomach is empty. Do not have anything to eat or drink, including water and chewing gum, after midnight the night before surgery. (Your bowel prep liquid is okay to drink during this time.) If you are asked to take antibiotic pills before surgery, take them with small sips of water.
When you arrive at the hospital, you will be asked fill out certain forms. You will then change into a gown. An IV (intravenous) line will be inserted into your arm. This provides fluids and medications. You’ll meet with your anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist to discuss the medication that helps you sleep during surgery. Ask any questions you have at this time. Before surgery begins, you’ll be given general anesthesia to put you into a deep sleep. A soft tube called a catheter may be placed into your bladder to drain urine.
Your surgery may be done through one incision in your abdomen. This is called open surgery. The incision may be several inches long. Or, the surgery may be done laparoscopically. This means the surgeon makes several small incisions. A laparoscope (a thin telescope-like tube) is then placed into one of the small incisions. This allows your doctor to view the surgery on a video monitor, and to operate through the small incisions.
Part or all of the rectum is resected (removed). Part or all of the sigmoid colon may also be removed. The anus may be removed as well.
If the rectum remains, the colon may be reconnected to it. This is called an anastomosis.
If the rectum and anus are removed, a colostomy is done. This creates a new opening in the abdomen so waste can leave the body.
Once surgery is done, you’ll be taken to a recovery room.
Below are the two types of rectal surgery. Your doctor can discuss these with you.
Low Anterior Resection: The sigmoid colon and a portion of the rectum are removed. The descending colon is reconnected to the remaining rectum.
Abdominal Perineal Resection: Part or all of the sigmoid colon and the entire rectum and anus are removed. A colostomy is then performed.
During a colostomy, part of the colon is connected to an opening in the abdominal wall. This new opening is called a stoma. This is where stool now leaves the body. Stool passes through the stoma into a special bag or appliance. Your healthcare team will help you learn how to care for your stoma. Adjusting to having a colostomy can seem overwhelming. But you will get lots of support. In time, caring for your stoma will become part of your daily routine.
Risks and possible complications of rectal surgery include the following:
Injury to nearby organs, such as the kidneys
Leaking or separation of anastomosis
Risks of anesthesia