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Scarlet fever is an illness that appears as a red (“scarlet”) rash on the body. It occurs in children who also have strep throat. Scarlet fever was once a serious childhood illness. Now, it can be treated with medication and home care. Children generally recover from scarlet fever within a week after starting treatment.
Scarlet fever is caused by Streptococcus (strep) bacteria. This is the same bacteria that causes strep throat.
Scarlet fever can be spread in the following ways:
Breathing infected air (the germs can enter the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes)
Contact with fluids (such as nasal fluids) from an infected person
Contact with items (such as cups, toothbrushes, or towels) that have been contaminated by an infected person
Symptoms usually appear 24 to 48 hours after exposure. These include:
A red rash that appears most often on the chest, back, or abdomen (also called “sandpaper rash” because it raises the skin and makes it feel like sandpaper)
Sore throat (strep throat)
Other symptoms that may occur include:
Paleness around the mouth
Strawberry tongue (white coating and red spots appear on the tongue causing it to look like a strawberry)
The doctor asks about your child’s symptoms and health history. Your child is examined. If scarlet fever is suspected, the doctor will swab the back of your child’s throat to check for the presence of bacteria.
Scarlet fever generally lasts about 7 to 10 days. The fever and sore throat go away within 48–72 hours of starting treatment. The rash may take 7 days to go away. Some peeling or flaking of the skin is normal.
Antibiotics are prescribed by the doctor. These can be given by injection or by mouth. Make sure your child takes ALL of the medication, even if he or she feels better.
Your child is no longer contagious 24 hours after starting treatment. Your child can go back to school or daycare following full recovery.
In an infant under 3 months old, a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38.0°C) or higher
In a child 3 to 36 months, a rectal temperature of 102°F (39.0°C) or higher
In a child of any age who has a temperature of 103°F (39.4°C) or higher
A fever that lasts more than 24-hours in a child under 2 years, or for 3 days in a child 2 years or older
A seizure caused by the fever
Symptoms that do not improve within 48 hours of starting treatment
A rash that worsens
There are usually no further problems once your child receives treatment. If untreated, scarlet fever can cause other serious health problems. Be sure to contact your child’s doctor right away if your child ever has a sore throat with a rash.