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The parathyroid glands are usually no bigger than grains of rice. Their main job is to keep the level of calcium in the blood within a certain range. This helps the muscles and nerves work properly and also keeps bones strong. When there is a problem with the parathyroid glands, the blood calcium level may get too high. This has effects throughout the body.
The parathyroid glands are most often found behind the thyroid gland in the neck. The parathyroid glands control the level of calcium in the blood by making parathyroid hormone (PTH). This is a chemical messenger that tells the body how to control calcium.
When the blood calcium level is low, the glands make more PTH. This tells the body to increase the amount of calcium in the blood. To increase the blood calcium level, the body may absorb more calcium from food in the intestines. It may also take calcium from the bones. When the blood calcium level is high, the glands make less PTH. This tells the body to decrease the amount of calcium in the blood. To decrease the blood calcium level, calcium is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys.