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You don’t have to eat a special diet just because you’ve had a colostomy. Most foods, chewed well and eaten slowly, won’t give you problems—unless they did before. But you may need to be more aware of foods that cause gas or odor and foods that make your stool too runny or too hard.
Learning which foods cause gas or odor, or make your stool runny or hard, takes a little time. You may want to add foods back to your diet one at a time.
Eat only small amounts at first to see how your body reacts.
If a food causes a problem, wait and try it again in a few weeks. Once your system adjusts, you may find the food doesn’t give you trouble anymore.
Some gas is normal, but constant gas is not. Neither is constant odor from stool. What causes gas or odor can differ from person to person.
Gas is often caused by swallowing air. To avoid this, eat slowly. Chew each bite well. Sip fluids, and don’t use a straw.
Some foods tend to cause excess gas. If you have excess gas, you may want to go easy on beer, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, corn, cucumbers, dried beans, milk, mushrooms, nuts, onions, peas, sodas, and spicy foods.
Some foods tend to cause odor. If odor is a problem, you may want to eat less asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cheese, eggs, fish, garlic, horseradish, and spices such as coriander, cumin, dill, and fennel.
Stool that’s more runny than normal (diarrhea) can be a sign of an illness, such as the flu. Some foods and medications can also cause runny stool.
If your stool is more runny than normal, drink plenty of fluids. This helps replace lost fluids and prevent dehydration.
Avoid foods that can make the stool loose, such as raw fruits and vegetables, garlic, onions, alcohol, spicy foods, and foods that are high in fat or sugar.
Check with your healthcare provider before you take any medications for diarrhea.
Do not irrigate while you have diarrhea.
Your stool can sometimes be too hard (constipation). Hard stool is often caused by not eating enough roughage (fiber) or not drinking enough fluids. Stress and some medications can also cause hard stool.
If your stool is hard, eat more high-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain breads and cereals.
Drink at least 8–12 cups (2–3 quarts) of water or juice each day. Fluids can be hot or cold.
Check with your healthcare provider before using laxatives or stool softeners.
You have nausea, vomiting, pain, cramping, or bloating.
You have a change in your normal bowel habits, such as little or no stool.
Your stool is loose or more runny than normal for more than 5–6 hours.
The stoma changes size, or the stool is black (blood in the stool).