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Blood loss can occur if your child has an injury, surgery, or an illness that affects blood cells. Blood is made up of several different parts (blood products). Your child may receive some or all of these blood products through a transfusion. Blood for transfusion is usually donated from another person (donor). Strict measures are taken to make sure that donated blood is safe before it’s given to your child. This sheet helps you understand how a blood transfusion is done. Your child’s health care provider will discuss your child’s condition with you and answer your questions.
Blood can be broken down into different parts that perform special roles in the body. These parts include:
Red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.
Platelets, which help stop bleeding.
Plasma (the liquid part of blood), which carries red blood cells and platelets throughout the body. Plasma also helps platelets in stopping bleeding.
Donors provide the blood used for transfusions. To make sure that blood is safe:
The health and medical history of each donor is carefully screened. If a person is considered high-risk for infection or problems, he or she isn’t accepted as a blood donor.
All donated blood is tested for infections such as hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). If the tested blood is found to be unsafe, it’s destroyed.
Blood is divided into four types: A, B, AB, and O. Blood also has Rh types: positive (+) and negative (-). Your child must only receive blood products that are compatible with his or her blood type. A sample of your child’s blood is tested for compatibility with donated blood. This is done before blood products are prepared for a transfusion.
A child may need a blood transfusion during a planned surgery. Family and friends can have their blood tested for compatibility and donate blood for a child before the surgery. This needs to be done at least 7 day(s) in advance. This is because the blood must be tested for safety.
A blood transfusion takes place in a blood center, hospital room, or operating room. It usually lasts 1–2 hours. Your child’s health care provider will discuss the blood transfusion with you before it’s done. You’ll need to give permission for the blood transfusion by signing a consent form.
Two health care providers confirm your child’s identity. They also confirm that they have the correct blood product(s) for your child.
An intravenous (IV) line is placed in a vein if your child does not already have an IV. This may cause your child some brief discomfort.
The blood product comes in a plastic bag that is hung on an IV pole. The blood product flows from the bag into your child’s IV line. The IV line may be connected to a pump, which controls the transfusion rate. Your child may receive more than one kind of blood product through the IV.
Your child’s vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) are checked throughout the transfusion. This is to make sure your child is not having a reaction to the blood product.
The IV line may be removed once the transfusion is complete.
Most transfusions are problem free. In some cases, reactions occur. These can happen within seconds or minutes during the transfusion or a week to a few months after the transfusion. Call the doctor or nurse right away if your child has any of the following signs and symptoms during or after a transfusion:
Signs and Symptoms
Allergic reaction (mild)
Within seconds to minutes during the transfusion
Up to 24 hours after the transfusion
Hives or red welts on the skin, mild itching, rash, localized swelling, flushing (red face), wheezing, shortness of breath, or stridor (high-pitched noise or sound)
Shortness of breath, flushing (red face), wheezing, labored (working hard) breathing, low blood pressure, localized swelling, chest tightness, or cramps
Febrile nonhemolytic reaction
Within minutes to hours during the transfusion
Fever (increase of 1°C or higher), chills, flushing (red face), nausea, headache, minor discomfort, or mild shortness of breath
Acute immune hemolytic reaction
Within minutes during the transfusion
Fever, red or brown urine, back pain, fast heart rate (tachycardia), abdominal pain, low blood pressure, feeling anxious, chills, chest pain, nausea, or fainting spells
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
Within 1 to 2 hours during the transfusion
Up to 6 hours after the transfusion
Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, low blood pressure, fever, pulmonary edema
Transfusion-associated circulatory overload
Near the end of the transfusion
Within 6 hours after the transfusion
Shortness of breath, fast heart rate (tachycardia), problems breathing when lying on back, abnormal blood pressure
Post-transfusion purpura (PUP)
Within 1 week
Up to 48 days after the transfusion
Purple spots on skin, nose bleed, urinary tract, abdomen, colon, or rectum, fever, or chills
"Delayed" transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
Within 72 hours (3 days) after the transfusion
“Sudden” onset of respiratory distress or trouble breathing
"Delayed" hemolytic reaction
Within 3 to7 days
Up to weeks after the transfusion
Low-grade fever, mild jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), decrease in hematocrit, chills, chest pain, back pain, nausea