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Some heel problems can result from poor foot mechanics. If your foot moves incorrectly, the ligaments and tendons can become strained, causing pain and swelling. Also, a bone spur (an extra bone growth) can form. Some spurs can occur when two bones press against each other. Bone spurs can make walking and wearing shoes painful.
The plantar fascia runs from the heel to the ball of the foot. A foot that flattens too much or too little as you move may strain the plantar fascia. The bottom of your foot may hurt when you stand up after resting, or after prolonged movement.
To release the plantar fascia from tension, it can be partially cut near the heel bone. To keep you from walking on your foot, you may have to use crutches for a few weeks. As you heal, fibrous tissue fills the space between the heel bone and the plantar fascia.
A heel spur may form when the plantar fascia tugs on the heel bone. The heel spur can then cause painful walking. Also, a nerve may sometimes become trapped. This can also cause or increase foot pain and swelling.
The plantar fascia first may be released. Then, if the nerve is trapped, it also can be released. If the heel spur affects your walking, it may be removed. You may need crutches for a few weeks. As you heal, fibrous tissue will grow between the heel bone and the plantar fascia.